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Research has demonstrated that pre-service teachers (PSTs) can learn to notice students’ thinking in sophisticated ways by analyzing videos of classroom interactions. What is less clear is how PSTs use what they notice about student thinking to inform how they respond. Secondary math and science PSTs from three teacher preparation programs were invited to analyze a video clip identifying noteworthy moments of student thinking and describing an instructional move they might make and why. A qualitative analysis of their responses indicates that the PSTs overwhelmingly noticed both the substance and the source of students’ ideas. However, the patterns in their responses to these moments varied. These findings suggest that PSTs would benefit from spending more time unpacking what it means to respond to students’ thinking. The study provides implications for teacher education with respect to the careful selection of classroom clips and tools to support novice teachers developing responsive teaching practices.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Teacher Education in 2024 following peer review. This article may not exactly replicate the final published version. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at

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American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education



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