Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 2022


Access to general education preschool in California has varied for children with disabilities. One reason for the disparity of educational placement is the preschool regulations outlined in California Department of Education’s Title 22: Community Care Licensing guidelines. These regulations, particularly in preschool, support or hinder preschool inclusion. Examining the preschool section of Title 22 through document analysis resulted in identifying three major themes that embrace or deter inclusive practices: (a) language (i.e., supportive language, antiquated language, and ambiguous language); (b) training, experience, and education; and (c) staff-student ratio. California’s educational leaders should consider these results to provide opportunities for preschool children with disabilities to be in general education environments.


This article was originally published in Issues in Teacher Education, volume 31, issue 2, in 2022.

Peer Reviewed



Caddo Gap Press



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