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Student participation is an issue of equity. Without participation there can be no learning. This study focuses on the participation (and therefore learning) of struggling students (those with individual education plans [IEPs]) during the implementation of a relational thinking routine in a third-grade inclusion classroom. Students with IEPs often initially used direct modeling with linking cubes as a resource for presenting their thinking. In this way, they were able to demonstrate their ability to think relationally. As the year progressed, these students, who had earlier been reluctant to share and had done so only by using several of the resources that the participation structure of the routine provided, often showed a growth in their abilities to explain their thinking verbally.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, volume 11, issue 3, on September 2, 2011, available online at DOI: 10.1080/14926156.2011.595882

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Taylor & Francis



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