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Migration has become both a consequence of and support structure for global racialised capitalism. A presumed source of support for the people who migrate is adult education, especially the second language learning class. However, as a state organized institution, the policies and practices that govern second-language courses serve to inculcate the ideologies and values that support a racialised capitalist system. We draw on two case examples – the U.S. and Germany – to demonstrate these entanglements. We engage Freire’s critical pedagogy wherein learning contexts encourage students to question the realities of their lives, and Foucault’s ideas regarding heterotopian places where the hegemonic norm is suspended and different approaches of pedagogical work can be implemented. We conclude with the suggestion of different pedagogical paths – a ‘pedagogy of dreaming’ and a ‘pedagogy of courage.’


This article was originally published in European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, volume 12, issue 1, in 2021.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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