Document Type


Publication Date



Effective collaboration is associated with positive outcomes for students and is a key component of equitable educational opportunities. There are challenges to effective collaboration, however, as our understanding of it differs based on the various definitions in the literature. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the common constructs across definitions of collaboration as a means to develop a universal model that can be used in the schools. Through the development of a “building blocks” framework, we provide a common definition and identify the steps that must be taken before true collaboration can occur. This model highlights the iterative nature of the collaborative process and the importance of revisiting the foundational aspects of collaborative development. The systematic review focuses on using a common definition for research and the practice of collaboration.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Canadian Journal of School Psychology in 2020 following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at

Figure 1.pdf (130 kB)
Figure 1

Figure 2.png (135 kB)
Figure 2

Figure 3.pdf (119 kB)
Figure 3

Peer Reviewed



The authors



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.