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The researchers piloted an observational protocol to examine the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles and checkpoint strategies used during daily instruction with a small sample of general and special education teachers. Observational research on UDL has been recommended within the literature. Researchers used the high-leverage practice of explicit instruction as the anchor for the design of the observation protocol. Findings indicate there is alignment between observed UDL principles and strategies employed at the lesson level and teachers’ self-reports of the UDL principles and strategies employed. Findings also suggest that teachers are using several UDL principles within their daily instruction and that there is overlap among UDL checkpoint strategies and aligned UDL principles. Essential UDL principles that pre-service and in-service teachers are expected to deliver at the lesson level can be prioritised to ensure a developmental approach to the implementation of UDL. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in International Journal of Inclusive Education in 2019, available online at It may differ slightly from the final version of record.

Peer Reviewed



Taylor & Francis



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