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This research examined the risk and protective factors of responders and nonresponders to a schoolwide implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports (SW-PBIS) within an alternative school. Students completed self-perception measures of individual, school, community, and home systems. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated a statistically significant difference between responders and nonresponders on the individual and school systems models. Direct logistic regression indicated that within these models, hostility, destructive expression of anger, depression, academic self-concept, attitude to teachers, and attitude to school each made a significant contribution in identifying responders and nonresponders. Findings suggest that factors at the individual and school levels may be crucial in identifying individuals who respond favorably to SW-PBIS. Interventions that target specific risk factors may improve responsiveness to SW-PBIS in alternative schools.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, volume 63, issue 2, in 2019, available online at DOI: 10.1080/1045988X.2018.1534224. It may differ slightly from the final version of record.

Peer Reviewed



Taylor & Francis



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