Document Type


Publication Date



Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) based interventions support individuals with complex communication needs (CCN) in becoming effective and efficient communicators. However, there is often a disconnect between language models, communication opportunities, and desired intervention outcomes in the intervention process. This paper outlines a service delivery model that unites these elements of intervention. The social theory of language acquisition provides the foundation of this immersion model (Paul & Norbury, 2012; Pence & Justice, 2013) while adaptations of indirect language stimulation strategies create (Beukelman & Mirenda, 2013; Paul & Norbury, 2012) the support system necessary to develop an independent and functional communicator. The model described in this article may be replicated or modified to meet the needs of individuals in any classroom or intervention setting.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Communication Disorders Quarterly, volume 35, issue 2, in 2014 following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at DOI: 10.1177/1525740113504242.

Peer Reviewed



Hammill Institute on Disabilities



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.