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Despite the increasing use of anger in persuasive messaging, such as political ads and health campaigns, very little is known about when and how anger affects persuasion. Building on theoretical propositions derived from four theoretical models that have addressed the link between anger and persuasion, the current meta-analysis (k = 55, N = 6,805) finds a weak impact of anger on behavior (r = .15, p = .04) and nonsignificant effects on attitudes (r = −.03, p = .30) and intent (r = .06, p = .13). Yet a closer look reveals a more complicated reality, where positive effects are identified with the presence of strong arguments, relevant anger, and the inclusion of efficacy appeals. Further, the study identifies an interplay between emotional intensity and argument strength, such that argument strength plays an important role only at lower levels of anger. The study concludes by integrating the results and proposing three promising areas for future research into anger and persuasion.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Communication following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version

Walter, N., Tukachinsky, R., Pelled, A., & Nabi, R. (2018). Meta-analysis of anger and persuasion: An empirical integration of four models. Journal of Communication, jqy054. doi: 10.1093/joc/jqy054

is available online at: DOI: 10.1093/joc/jqy054

Appendix A_final.docx (149 kB)
Appendix A

Appendix B_final.docx (20 kB)
Appendix B

Appendix C_final.docx (32 kB)
Appendix C

Appendix D_Final.docx (16 kB)
Appendix D


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