Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



We propose a novel supervised learning approach for political ideology prediction (PIP) that is capable of predicting out-of-distribution inputs. This problem is motivated by the fact that manual data-labeling is expensive, while self-reported labels are often scarce and exhibit significant selection bias. We propose a novel statistical model that decomposes the document embeddings into a linear superposition of two vectors; a latent neutral context vector independent of ideology, and a latent position vector aligned with ideology. We train an end-to-end model that has intermediate contextual and positional vectors as outputs. At deployment time, our model predicts labels for input documents by exclusively leveraging the predicted positional vectors. On two benchmark datasets we show that our model is capable of outputting predictions even when trained with as little as 5% biased data, and is significantly more accurate than the state-of-the-art. Through crowd-sourcing we validate the neutrality of contextual vectors, and show that context filtering results in ideological concentration, allowing for prediction on out-of-distribution examples.


This article was originally published in Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, volume 1, in 2023.


Association for Computational Linguistics

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.