Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Clarithromycin Against Macrolide-Resistant (PCR positive mefA or ermB) Streptococcus pneumoniae Simulating Clinically Achievable Free Drug Serum and Epithelial Lining Fluid Concentrations
The association between macrolide resistance mechanisms and clinical outcomes remains understudied. The present study, using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, assessed clarithromycin (CLR) activity against mef(A)-positive and erm(B)-negative Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates by simulating free-drug concentrations in serum and both total (protein-bound and free) and free drug in epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Five mef(A)-positive and erm(B)-negative strains, one mef(A)-negative and erm(B)-positive strain, and a control [mef(A)-negative and erm(B)-negative] strain of S. pneumoniae were tested. CLR was modeled using a one-compartment model, simulating a dosage of 500 mg, per os, twice a day (in serum, free-drug Cp maximum of 2 μg/ml, t1/2 of 6 h; in ELF, CELF(total) maximum of 35μg/ml, t1/2 of 6 h; CELF(free) maximum of 14 μg/ml, t1/2 of 6 h). Starting inocula were 106 CFU/ml in Mueller-Hinton broth with 2% lysed horse blood. With sampling at 0, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 h, the extent of bacterial killing was assessed. Achieving CLR T/MIC values of ≥90% (AUC0-24/MIC ratio, ≥61) resulted in bacterial eradication, while T>MIC values of 40 to 56% (AUC0-24/MIC ratios of ≥30.5 to 38) resulted in a 1.2 to 2.0 log10 CFU/ml decrease at 24 h compared to that for the initial inoculum. CLR T/MIC values of ≤8% (AUC0-24/MIC ratio, ≤17.3) resulted in a static effect or bacterial regrowth. The high drug concentrations in ELF that were obtained clinically with CLR may explain the lack of clinical failures with mef(A)-producing S. pneumoniae strains, with MICs up to 8 μg/ml. However, mef(A) isolates for which MICs are ≥16 μg/ml along with erm(B) may result in bacteriological failures.
Noreddin AM, Roberts D, Nichol K, Wierzbowski A, Hoban DJ, Zhanel GG. Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Clarithromycin against Macrolide-Resistant [PCR-Positive mef(A) or erm(B)] Streptococcus pneumoniae Simulating Clinically Achievable Serum and Epithelial Lining Fluid Free-Drug Concentrations. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2002;46(12):4029-4034. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.12.4029-4034.2002.
American Society for Microbiology