Integrated optical elements can simplify the linear optics used to simulate quantum circuits. These linear optical simulations of quantum circuits have been developed primarily in terms of the free space optics associated with single-photon interferometry. For an L-bit simulation the number of required free-space optical elements is ∝2L if 50/50 beam splitters are used. The implementation (construction and alignment) of these circuits with these free-space elements is nontrivial. On the other hand, for the cases presented in this paper in which linear integrated optics (e.g., 2L×2L fiber couplers) are used, the number of optical devices does not grow exponentially with L. The problem is changed from having an exponential growth of the number of devices to having devices with an exponential growth in the number of ports. In addition to simplifying the construction, the association of an N×N fiber coupler with the discrete Fourier transform suggests alternative formulations for the circuits. Several examples of circuit reductions are given.
J. C. Howell, and J. A. Yeazell, Reducing the Complexity of Linear Optics Quantum Circuits, Phys. Rev. A 61(5), 052303. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.61.052303
American Physical Society