Document Type


Publication Date



Hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are responsible for ensuring that all antimicrobials are utilized in the most appropriate and safe manner to improve patient outcomes, prevent adverse drug reactions, and prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance. This Perspectives article outlines the hospital antimicrobial use process (AUP), the foundational system that ensures that all antimicrobials are utilized in the most appropriate and safe manner. The AUP consists of the following steps: antimicrobial ordering, order verification, preparation and delivery, administration, monitoring, and discharge prescribing. AMS programs should determine how each step contributes to how an antimicrobial is used appropriately or inappropriately at their institution. Through this understanding, AMS programs can integrate stewardship activities at each step to ensure that every opportunity is taken to optimize antimicrobial use during a patient’s treatment course. Hence, approaching AMS through the framework of a hospital’s AUP is essential to improving appropriate antimicrobial use.


This article was originally published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases, volume 5, issue 6, in 2018. DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy098


The authors

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.