Date of Award

Spring 5-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Surya M. Nauli

Second Advisor

Aftab Ahmed

Third Advisor

Ajay Sharma

Fourth Advisor

Amir Ahsan


The wavelength is used to identify the exact location and quantify the number of molecules in the spectral imaging system. It aids in identifying materials and studying their quantities by examining how they interact with light. A traditional spectrometer provides spectrum information of chemical compounds, while standard imaging provides the intensity at each pixel of the image. Spectral imaging (SI) combines these two aspects by equipping intensity and spectral data for each pixel. In biomedical research, it is important to assess the inorganics/organics molecules to understand drug activity, cellular toxicity, and distribution. Using the microscopy technique, we found for the first time that spectral imaging can provide a high temporal and spatial resolution of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) in fixed, living cells and tissue samples. We discovered that SI has a tremendous potential to study NPs localization and identification in biological samples at a single living cell and tissue, based primarily on the spectra information. In addition, we revealed for the first time that without labeling the drug and destroying the samples, spectral imaging is a novel method that allows us to analyze the dynamics of drug distribution and metabolism in single living cells. The spectral microscopy provides a high image resolution to track and identifies doxorubicin (dox) metabolite, which is doxorubicinol (dox’ol). The microscopy approach confirms that both dox and dox’ol are translocated to the nucleus at different rates, while rhodamine remains in the cytoplasm.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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