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Relative to standard red/green/blue (RGB) imaging systems, hyperspectral imaging systems offer superior capabilities but tend to be expensive and complex, requiring either a mechanically complex push-broom line scanning method, a tunable filter, or a large set of light emitting diodes (LEDs) to collect images in multiple wavelengths. This paper proposes a new methodology to support the design of a hypothesized system that uses three imaging modes—fluorescence, visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance—to capture narrow-band spectral data at only three to seven narrow wavelengths. Simulated annealing is applied to identify the optimal wavelengths for sparse spectral measurement with a cost function based on the accuracy provided by a weighted k-nearest neighbors (WKNN) classifier, a common and relatively robust machine learning classifier. Two separate classification approaches are presented, the first using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network trained on sparse data from the three individual spectra and the second using a fusion of the data from all three spectra. The results are compared with those from four alternative classifiers based on common machine learning algorithms. To validate the proposed methodology, reflectance and fluorescence spectra in these three spectroscopic modes were collected from fish fillets and used to classify the fillets by species. Accuracies determined from the two classification approaches are compared with benchmark values derived by training the classifiers with the full resolution spectral data. The results of the single-layer classification study show accuracies ranging from ~68% for SWIR reflectance to ~90% for fluorescence with just seven wavelengths. The results of the fusion classification study show accuracies of about 95% with seven wavelengths and more than 90% even with just three wavelengths. Reducing the number of required wavelengths facilitates the creation of rapid and cost-effective spectral imaging systems that can be used for widespread analysis in food monitoring/food fraud, agricultural, and biomedical applications.


This article was originally published in Applied Sciences, volume 11, in 2021.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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