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Sunflower butter use as an allergen-free alternative to tree and legume nut butter in baking is limited by chlorogenic acid induced greening that occurs at alkaline pH. Limited information is available on controlling this greening in a food matrix. This study examined how different liquid sweeteners and relative humidity influenced greening of sunflower butter cookies. Doughs had similar initial pH (7.52–7.66) which increased to 8.44–9.13 after baking as ranked: xylitol > maple syrup > corn syrup > honey > agave syrup. Cookies made with maple syrup had the highest moisture and greening corresponding with lowest free chlorogenic acid. The % greening followed the same trend as greening intensity, and was positively correlated (r = 0.9101) with chlorogenic-lysine adduct content. Our findings provide an ingredient solution to controlling greening, as results demonstrate that greening can be promoted with high relative humidity storage, and use of high moisture and pH ingredients. Unwanted greening can be inhibited by simply changing the liquid sweetener.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Food Chemistry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Food Chemistry, volume 241, in 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.084

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