Date of Award

Summer 8-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Ryan M. Allen

Second Advisor

Meghan E. Cosier

Third Advisor

Jillian Wood


The study focused on Equality of Educational Opportunity (EEO) in China from the aspects of family, shadow education, and school. The main purpose was to find the influence of factors from the three aspects on people’s educational outcomes. The interaction effects among family, shadow education, and school were emphasized to check how the three aspects correlated with each other and how shadow education and school moderated the effect of students’ family background on the (un)equal distribution of educational outcomes. The study used PISA 2015 data to analyze the association of predictors from family, shadow education, and school with students’ achievement among the whole group of the participants and the lower economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) group. A comparison was made to find whether these factors yielded varied effects on the educational outcomes between the two groups. The study was interested in if school and shadow education would make up for their family deficiency for the group with lower ESCS in educational attainment.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Available for download on Saturday, August 05, 2023