The present study focuses on analyzing the precipitation trends over six Indian cities during the summer monsoon (June-September) covering the period 1951-2007 and also attempting to investigate possible urban forcing and dynamics by examining the variation in precipitation in the upwind and downwind directions. The analysis shows negative trends in the total number of rainy days over Hyderabad (-10.4%), Kanpur (-7.1%), Jaipur (-10.5%), and Nagpur (-4.8%) and positive trends over Delhi (7.4%) and Bangalore (22.9%). On the other hand, decreases of -21.3%, -5.9%, -14.2%, and -14.6% in seasonal rainfall are found over Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, and Kanpur, respectively, whereas Bangalore and Nagpur show 65.8% and 13.5% increase. The lesser rainfall and rainy days, along with the mostly declining trend, in the downwind directions of the cities may imply an urban influence in precipitation associated with the increased anthropogenic emissions due to expansion of the urban areas and the increase of population. However, the large spatiotemporal variability of precipitation and the lack of statistical significance in the vastmajority of the trends do not allow the extraction of safe conclusion concerning the aerosol-precipitation interactions around Indian cities.
Kharol, S.K., et al., "Long-Term (1951-2007) Rainfall Trends around Six Indian Cities: Current State, Meteorological, and Urban Dynamics." Advances in Meteorology, 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/572954
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