"Over 90% of hip fractures in older adults are caused by falls . Whether a given fall will cause hip fracture depends on bone strength, and on the impact force and stress applied to the bone during impact . Improved understanding is required on how peak bone stresses during a fall depend on the mechanics of a fall, and on the state of contraction at the moment of impact of the muscles spanning the hip. Recently, Choi et al showed that, for lateral impact to the hip, peak stresses decrease with increases in hip abductor muscle force . In the current study, we used an advanced hip impact simulator to examine the independent and interacting effects of both hip muscle force and pelvis impact angle on peak bone stresses during a fall."
Choi, W.J., & Robinovitch, S.N. (2015). 200AF--Effects of pelvis impact angle and hip muscle forces on hip fracture risk during a fall using an advanced hip impact simulator. American Society of Biomechanics 39th Annual MeetingAbstracts. Retrieved from http://archive.asbweb.org/conferences/2015/abstracts/200AF--Effects%20Of%20Pelvis%20Impact%20Angle%20And%20Hip%20Muscle%20Forces%20On%20Hip%20Fracture%20Risk%20During%20A%20Fall%20Using%20An%20Advanced%20Hip%20Impact%20Simulator--(Choi).pdf
American Society of Biomechanics