The digital and social media campaign of the NITB is evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative performance metrics. The overall success of the GoT Belfast campaign is weighed in terms of economic costs to attract the filming to Northern Ireland versus the economic impact on the region. The assessment addresses the process to evaluate the fit between film and location, the strategies used by the DMO to attract the film production, the impact of the DMO digital and social media campaign, and an overall assessment of the economic impact of the film production on the region.
Noel Martin Murray
This chapter addresses the role of cine-tourism in destination marketing. Specifically, it analyzes the strategic alliance between the Northern Ireland Tourist Board and HBO, producers of the popular television series Game of Thrones. A narrative analysis is performed on several examples of campaign creative, and traces how the GoT Belfast campaign reimagines Northern Ireland as a tourist destination. The digital and social media campaign of the NITB is evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative performance metrics. The overall success of the GoT Belfast campaign is weighed in terms of economic inducements to attract the filming to Northern Ireland versus the economic impact on the region. Recommendations are offered for future research and for implementation of best practices in cine-tourism management.
James R. Barth, Apanard P. Angkinand, and Clas Wihlborg
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) of 2010 provides for a wide variety of new regulatory and supervisory initiatives with the goal to promote a safer and sounder banking system. Our paper puts Dodd-Frank into a historical perspective, identifies its key features, discusses the implementation progress, and assesses whether the law will accomplish its objectives. We conclude that the approach in the law to financial regulatory reform is best described as a Band-Aid approach to financial regulation. A better approach in our view is one that strengthens market discipline on bank risk-taking and enhances competition so as to reduce the regulatory burden and enhance the efficiency and stability of the financial system. Dodd-Frank pays lip service to this objective with the creation of an Orderly Liquidation Authority and the Financial Stability Oversight Council, with the effectiveness of both these new bodies being very much in doubt.
James R. Barth, Apanard Penny Prabha, and Clas Wihlborg
This chapter explores the concept of transparency in financial regulation from the perspective of the public. It looks at the role of risk assessment in transparency and the regulatory environment as well as the importance of pluralism in competition in the financial sector. The chapter first considers the meaning of “transparency of financial regulation” and its relation to simplicity. It then traces the progression of the Basel capital adequacy framework from Basel I to Basel III, along with the sources of lack of transparency in the framework. It also presents data showing the lack of transparency in the Basel Capital Accord and countries’ regulatory responses to the global financial crisis. Differences in the implementation of regulation regarding systemically important financial institutions are outlined. Finally, it discusses recent proposals for the separation or separability of financial activities with the goal of enhancing the transparency of banks’ activities for both market participants and resolution authorities.
Cristina M. Giannantonio and Amy E. Hurley-Hanson
"In 1914 Sir Ernest Shackleton set sail from London for Antarctica aboard the HMS Endurance. Having lost the race to the South Pole, Shackleton planned a polar expedition which would be the first to cross the Antarctic continent. Well aware of the dangers of polar expeditions, even Shackleton could not have predicted the extreme events that befell the Endurance Expedition. He earned his place in history not because he was the first to discover the South Pole, nor the first to cross Antarctica. Instead, Shackleton is remembered as a courageous leader who faced unfathomable challenges with optimism and conviction. Equally important, he is remembered as a compassionate leader who cared for his crew and rescued all 27 men who embarked on a remarkable journey into the unknown.THE RACE TO THE SOUTH POLEThe Heroic Age of Antarctic exploration encompasses a 25-year time span beginning in 1897 with Adrien de Gerlache’s Belgian Antarctic Expedition and ending with Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, of 1914–1917. During this time, 17 expeditions were commissioned from ten different countries. Nineteen explorers died on these expeditions, most from scurvy and malnutrition, but some froze to death, while others were swept overboard and lost at sea.The most notable expeditions of this time were led by Roald Amundsen, Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton. They were three very different men, and although they earned their spot in history for three very different reasons, they shared a common goal: to be the first to reach the South Pole."
Amy E. Hurley-Hanson and Cristina M. Giannantonio
"Unfortunately, extreme situations occur in places we can only hope they would not. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting that occurred on 14 December 2012 was an extreme situation. In less than five minutes, a person walked into a school and killed 20 children and six adults. The student victims were eight boys and 12 girls, between six and seven years of age (Reuters, 2012a). The events that occurred that day were well outside the norm of daily activities for the principals, teachers and aides that worked at Sandy Hook in Newtown, CT. We include this tragic event because it illustrates the wide spectrum of extreme situations where inspirational and authentic leadership may emerge. By analyzing the selfless behaviors displayed in this extreme situation, leadership lessons may be learned from those who were thrust into an extreme situation and ran towards it to do what they could to save lives."
Memes, Memetics and Marketing: A State-of-the-Art Review and a Lifecycle Model of Meme Management in Advertising
Noel Murray, Ajay Manrai, and Lalita Manrai
The concept of the "meme" has promised to transform our understanding of culture in the same manner as the gene has transformed our knowledge of biology. Yet, memetics has failed to live up to its promise of delivering a more complex and complete model of culture. This paper addresses why the science of memetics has failed to live up to its early promise. It assesses memetics' contribution to explanatory targets of culture, marketing and advertising. The paper analyzes why memetics has received a more positive reception among physical and mathematical sciences than from the social sciences. The social sciences have not been especially receptive to memetics' two over-arching theoretical metaphors of genetics and of viruses of the mind. Nonetheless, a review of popular and successful social media campaigns reveals the popularity of viral themes in the construction of these campaigns. The paper argues that memetics would benefit from the development of a propositional network of empirically testable hypotheses. A lifecycle model of meme management is developed and several testable propositions for memetics in advertising contexts are offered. Finally, we evaluate the prospects for memetics in marketing and call for new theoretical approaches to memetics that rely less on biological, deterministic models of behaviors, and which draw from recent trends in the literature of sociobiology and cultural transmission. The integration of these new theoretical developments into memetics will allow for the integration of cognitive models, in a new and more open model of memetics.
Reuven Glick and Clas Wihlborg
The existing evidence on the volume effects of exchange rate risk and exchange rate regime choice is examined. The analysis involves estimating the effects of cross-country differences in exchange rate regime on export and import elasticities using a continuous measure of the degree of exchange rate flexibility. It is argued that risk for firms involved in international trade tends to decrease with greater exchange rate flexibility. In formulating our hypotheses we argued that the cross-country variation in U.S. export elasticities with respect to the real exchange rate and foreign GDPs is primarily attributable to the cross- country variation in bilateral exchange rate regime-related risk. The empirical results showed that U.S. export elasticities increase with the degree of bilateral exchange rate flexibility of the importing country. We interpreted this result as an indication that the total macroeconomic risk exporters face decreases as the degree of exchange rate flexibility increases.